Open Science is foreseen and expected to make fundamental transform of science itself. Various efforts such as a digitization of academic journal have already done for advancing Open Science, even aiming publishing broader research results with ICT. Then the quality control of information is crucial to utilize open research results and also to accelerate Open Science. The way of the peer review had been argued many times in the past, even before digitization of academic journal. Nowadays, digitization and openness lead various new attempts about the quality control, for example open peer review and lightweight peer review. While use of preprints is becoming the main method to publish research results in some research fields such as computer science, the evaluation method of research results without conventional peer review is a pressing issue. On the other hand, the "Wellcome Trust", a biomedical research charity in UK, launched the “Wellcome Open Research” which was the platform for peer-reviewed open paper and data publishing.
Under these circumstances, we once recognized the importance of deepening the discussion about quality control through a discussion of preprint server and institutional repositories on the 2nd SPARC Japan Seminar 2017. In addition, we talked about a history of science and beginning of the peer review on the 3rd SPARC Japan Seminar 2017, which reconfirmed that the quality control was a universal issue of all time. ICT and openness develop revolutionary research environments. Thus, it is very important for looking into the future of the scholarly communication that developing system for quality control, beyond conventional peer review in a specific research community, in inter- and trans-disciplinary filed or in citizen science field. Therefore, on the 2nd SPARC Japan Seminar 2018, we will discuss perspective of quality control in the age of Open Science and how we could guarantee quality of contents. We will share information about recent concrete cases, too.